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Bagua - First and Second Generation History

The concept of Bagua can be traced back to the dawn of written history with the creation of the I-C hing. The commonly acknowledge history of Bagua Zhang starts with the legendary teacher Dong Haichan and his seventy-two students. Many of his students became active proponents of this style. Now, Bagua Zhang is one of the major internal style in the world.

The story of Dong Hai Chang and his students are described in five sections:

   

Prehistory

Bagua theory is based on a long history that spans thousands of years. The legendary Chinese emperor Fu His (2852-2738 B.C) is credited with the discovery of methods of divination using the symbols of the I Ching. The methods and techniques were passed down as an oral tradition until the twelfth century BC. Chou Wen (~ 1143 BC), a Yi Ching scholar re-interpreted the names of the gua and collected writings on the I Ching. His younger son, Chou Tan, known as the Duke of Chau, interpreted the meanings of the individual lines, completed the book of I Ching in 1110 BC. Chinese mythology attributes the longevity of the Chou Dynasty (1150-249 B.C) wisdom in government derived from study of the Yi-Ching The importance of the I Ching is reaffirm when Confucius(551-479 B.C) recorded in his Analects,

"If some years were added to my life, I would give fifty to the study of the Yi-Ching, and might then escape from falling into great errors."

Through Confucius, the I Ching was honoured as a Classic, and was required reading for scholars and government exams.

The I Ching is also closely identified with Taoist practice because of its use in divination. This book is consider to be as important as the other Taoist text such as the Tao Te Ching and the writings of Chuang Tze. The taoist then merged the philosophy of the I Ching with exercises and moving meditations to form the precursor of Bagua Zhang. However, the exact nature of those practices were not recorded.

Historically, one of the first references to a form of Bagua Zhang relates that two Taoist priests (Bi Yun and Jin Yun) practice and taught this art. They lived on Mount Ermei in Sichuan Province during the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty. Others attribute the teachers of Dong Hai Chong to be Pi Cheng Xia (Bi Chengxia) and he passed on this knowledge to others including Song Yi Ren (§º¯q¤¯) who later taught Gao Yi Sheng.

Tian Hou-Jie claims to be one of the students of the two Taoist priests and the Tian family continued the tradition of Yin-Yang BaGua Zhang. In 1958, Tian Hui published a book Yin-Yang BaGua Zhang which describe the history and practice of this style.


   

Dong Hai Chang (1798-1882)

Dong Hai Chang (Tung Hai-Chuan) is the acknowledged founder of the style. A native of Zhujiawa, south of Wenan County in Heibei Province. When he was young, he studied the erlangquan (Erlang - hero from chinese legends) of Shaolin School. He was poverty-stricken but chivalrous, and he drifted from place to place to eke out a living. Legend suggests that during his travels through China, he studied with a Taoist, Bi Chengxia, in Mt. Jiuhua in the southern part of Anhui Province, one of China's five sacred mountains. Later Dong learned other skills from Guo Yuanj'l, nicknamed the "Iron Stick Taoist." After several years of study, he created a new style "Turning Palms" and use his techniques to defeat many famous martial artists.

Dong Serving the princeDong travelled to Beijing in 1875. He was employed in the house of Prince Shan Qi's during the reign of the Emperor Guang Xu . One legend described how Prince Shan Qi became aware of the remarkable abilities of Dong. In this story, Shan Qi was a great lover of wushu. The prince was famous for holding parties where he invited the greatest martial arts in the country to demonstrate their skills. During one of those events, a servant with a large tray of tea couldn't get through to the prince because of the large crowd. In order to help, Dong took the tray with the tea and got to the prince by running on the wall which was over everyone's head. The prince recognized the Dong's unique skills and quickly promoted Dong. Another version of the discovery of Dong also occur duing a party hosted by the Prince. In this story, Prince Shan Qi asked his bodyguard Sha Huihui to demonstrate his martial arts skills. Sha was a strong man and his breathtaking performance drew prolonged applause from the audience. During the heat of the moment, he issued an open challenge to those present. No one dared to accept the challenge. At that moment it happened that Dong Haichuan was serving food and drinks to the guests. He heard the challenger but hesitated over whether he should answer it. When he saw no one come forward, he volunteered to take on Sha Huihui. After a few bouts, he made a sweeping, forceful movement with his palms and flung Sha to the ground a dozen feet away. Everyone was struck dumb by his prowess. The prince was so impressed that he later made Dong head of his bodyguards.

Dong became one of the prominent martial artists in the court and from that time on he began to teach baguazhang in Beijing and the surrounding areas. He taught many students in Beijing and all his students were known for their quality and skills. Dong Haichuan died in 1882 at the age of 84. He was buried beside the Red Bridge outside Beijing's Dongzhi Gate. On his graph was an epitaph written by his followers and a list of his students. This tomb was damaged during the cultural revolution. In 1980, the tomb was renovated and moved to Wan'an Cemetery.


   

Eight Great Students of Dong Hai Chang

Seventy-two names was recorded at the grave of Dong Hai Chang (Tung Hai-Chuan). Among them was famous practioners and teachers that went on to found their own style and training methods. In the Martial arts world, it is generally recognized that Dong has eight great students each with exceptional abilities. They are:

  1. Yin Fu (1842–1909)
  2. Chen Ting Hua (1848-1900)
  3. Chang Chan Kuei (1859-1940)
  4. Ma Gui (1854 -1940)
  5. Ma Wei Chi (1851 - 1880)
  6. Liu Feng Chun (1855 - 1922)
  7. Liu De Kuan (?-1911)
  8. Song Chang Rong

Yin Fu (1842–1909) also known as Te An Shou P'eng, as well as "Shou Yin" ("Little Yin") because of his size. He was born in Zhang Huai Village, Qi district, Jixian county, Hebei province. His father, Yin Lao Shan was a farmer. When he was young, he might have studied the following styles: Mei Hua Quan (Plum Flower Boxing), Lian Huan Tui (Chain Kicking) and / or She Xin Quan (Snake Tongue Boxing). A series of natural disasters (drought followed by floods) drove him out of his home village and he moved to Beijing. He eventually moved to Beijing and worked as an apprentice in a cutlery (scissors) shop. A short time later he gave up the scissor business and began selling pancakes and "fried-dough twists." In his early years in Beijing he picked up the nick name "Fried Dough Twist" Yin. Since he was tall and slim, people also called him 'Thin" Yin.

There are several versions of the story concerning Yin Fu's introduction to Dong Hai Chuan. In the first version, Yin Fu did not know any martial arts. Yang Kun, a third generation Yin style practioner, tells how Yin was extremely diligent about his job. He would arrive very early at the baker's, pick up the first batch of baked and fried goods and then quickly run out to sell them, thus getting a jump on his competition. It is said that Dong took an early morning walk every day and frequently witnessed the young man frantically making his morning rounds near Prince Su's palace. On one morning Yin Fu was robbed while making his rounds. Determined that he would not let this happen again, Yin began to practice martial arts on his own in the woods. Tung saw him practicing one day and was highly impressed with Yin's determination and drive. He approached Yin and asked if Yin would like to study martial arts.

Yet another version of the story, as told by Xie Pei Qi, states when Yin Fu came to Beijing he was already skilled at "Snake's Tongue" Boxing (She Xin Quan), which he had practiced since childhood. Shortly after he arrived in Beijing he heard of Tung Hai Chuan's reputation and went to the palace to challenge him. When Yin met Tung and initiated the challenge, Tung was holding a tobacco pouch in his left hand. Tung stretched out his right hand with the palm facing up (yang palm) and said, "You start first." Yin squared off with Tung and extended his hand in attack. As soon as Yin's hand met Tung's arm, Tung turned his palm over and pressed on Yin's arm. Yin Fu moved to block up and when he did Tung speared straight in and struck him in the mouth with his fingertips, knocking out his two front teeth. Tung never dropped the tobacco pouch. Realizing that he had been outclassed, Yin knelt and asked Tung to be his teacher. Tung refused. Yin said, "If you do not take me as your student, I will kneel here and die in front of you." Prince Su was passing by and observed what was happening. He noticed that Yin was very thin and had a "unique look." The prince told Tung to please accept this young man as his disciple. He said, "I will be the one to make the introduction between teacher and student." At this, Tung accepted as his disciple.

The last version, often found in Chinese marital art books, tells that Yin was experienced in the arts of Mei Hua Quan and Lian Huan Tui before meeting Tung. When he came to Beijing, Yin heard about the great teacher Tung Hai Chuan and was determined to meet him. In an effort to be noticed by Tung, Yin purposely chose his business route near the palace of Prince Su. Yin constantly asked people who worked and lived near the palace about Tung Hai Chuan. Tung received word of this persistent young man and eventually agreed to teach him.

Yin started studying with Dong in the mid 1860’s. Dong first taught Yin Fu Luo Han Quan because this was the style being taught at the palace before training in Bagua. He spent twenty years with Dong. For ten years, he was collecting taxes for the Court in Inner Mongolia. History records that the teacher and student practiced morning, noon, and night, and it was during that time that Yin learned the entire system. He popularized the Tornado Palm and Ox Tongue Palm techniques of the Bagua system. He was Dong’s first and by far his longest serving student.

When Yin Fu became proficient in Bagua, he started a protection and bodyguard agency. His students worked for him, guarding the homes and bodies of the well-to-do and the elite of Beijing. The success of the agency was due to the fact that each and every guard was backed by the reputation of Yin Fu. Each of these guard/students learned Lohan Shaolin, Pao Chui and Kung Li before learning Pa Kua Chang, making each of them effective fighters in their own right. As he became wealthy from his two businesses, Yin Fu began to send food and clothing back to his home village every month. [1]

In 1900, during the evacuation of the capital due to the Boxer's Rebellion, he was appointed the head bodyguard of the Empress Dowager and the Guang Xu emperor. After government returned to Beijing, Yin continued in the employ as head of the royal guard. When he retired, he was succeeded in his position by Gong Baotian, one of his more accomplished disciples. He died when he was 70 years old. His two sons later moved to Shandong province.

The style and flavour of Bagua that Yin Fu began to teach became known as Yin Style Bagua.

Students
Cao Zhongsheng, Cui Zhendong,Geng Jishan, Gao Wencheng, Gong Baotian, He Jinkui, Jiu Qingyuan, Li Yong Qing, Liu Yinliang, Lu Zijian, Ma Gui, Men Baozhen (1870-1957), Rong Shi, Wan Tongli, Yang Junfeng,Yin Yuzhang (his son), Zeng Zengqi, Zhang Shouheng .


Chen Ting Hua (1848-1900) was from Cheng village of Sun district, Hebei Province. He opened a spectacle shop in Beijing and thus earned the nickname "Yanjing Cheng" (Spectacle Cheng). Cheng was very fond of the martial arts and studied many different styles. He was particularly proficient at Chinese Shuai Jiao (wrestling) before studying with Dong Haichuan. He started to train with Dong Haichuan when he was 28 years old. He trained in Bagua for 10 years before reaching a certain level of proficiency.

Cheng was short but strong and was described as having an impulsive nature. It is said that many famous fighters challenged Cheng but no one could defeat him. There are many stories concerning the challenges to Cheng. One story describes the visit "The Divine Crushing Fist", Hsing-I master, Kuo Yun-Shen. Kuo was the famous master of Half-Step Crushing Fist who was undefeated at the time. Kuo had spent time in prison for killing an opponent without first checking his political connections. During his confinement, Kuo practiced his Half-Step Crushing Fist while dragging his ball and chain along. When he was released his primary technique was more powerful than ever. Now he wanted to test his skill against the famous Pa Kua of Dong Hai Chuan, but first he wanted to talk to Cheng, a fellow Hebei resident. Over dinner, Kuo expounded his theory that Half-Step Crushing Fist could defeat everyone under heaven. Cheng begged to differ and suggest that Dong Hai Chuan was not like ordinary men. Kuo tried to demonstrate his hand speed, but found his hand pinned to the table by Cheng's chopsticks. Infuriated, Kuo marched out into Cheng's garden and challenged Cheng to come out and taste the power of his Crushing Fist. As Cheng cleared the door, Kuo exploded at him. Cheng was suddenly behind him. Kuo wheeled and again exploded with crushing fist. Cheng effortlessly circled behind him and calmly went back in the house. He then called for Kuo to come in and finish dinner with him. His rage spent, Kuo complied. As they finished dinner Cheng explained that he didn't want to really fight the famous Kuo Yun Shen, but that if he could avoid two of Kuo's blows, perhaps Kuo shouldn't risk his unbeaten record on Master Tung. It was only because they were all from Hebei province that he didn't want to see anyone's reputation tarnished. Kuo thanked him, rethought his position and returned to Hebei province.

In July 1900, foreign troops entered Beijing. Legends has it that Cheng took the responsiblity for defending the people from the invasion. He tried to defend himself agaisnt a dozen soldiers armed with only two daggers. His pupils tried to stop him, but to no avail. It was later found that Cheng single-handedly killed ten or more soldiers, but he died of multiple bullet wounds. Another story described how Cheng was killed by German Soldiers in 1900 during the boxer rebellion. In this story, Cheng was being work press ganged into a work detail so he pulled a short knife and was shot jumping over a wall in an attempt to escape.

Students
Cheng Yulung (eldest son, 1875-1928), Cheng Youxin (2nd son),Cheng Yougong, Feng Junyi, Gao Kexing, Gao Yi Sheng (1866-1951), Geng Jishan, Guo Tongde, Han Qiying, Hon Mu Xi, Kan Lingfeng, Li Cunyi, Li Hanzhang, Li Wenbiao, Liu Bin, Liu Zhenzong, Qin Cheng, Sun Lu Tang (1861-1932), Liu Dekuan, Yang Mingshan, Zhang Changfa, Zhang Yongde, Zhang Yukui, Zhou Yu Xiang, Zhang Zhao Dong (1859-1940).


Chang Chan KueiChang Chan Kuei (1859-1940, Zhang Zhankui), was also known as Chang Chao Tung (Zhang Zhao Dong). He was born in He Chien county in the village of Ho Hung Yan in Hebei Province. He first trained in Mi Tsung Chuang (Lost track style also known as Yen Chen Fist). Later, he studied Hsing Yi with Liu Chi Lan and obtained a very high level of proficiency. In one story, Chang defeated a tax collector trying to exploit the villagers. From his exploits, he gained the reputation of being a straight man and is known as a "people hero". Later on he left the village and found a job catching criminals in Tianjin. It was during this time he first met and studied with Chen Ting Hua. Chen later introduce him to his teacher Dong Hai Chuan and Chang later studied directly with Dong. He trained hard and earned the nickname "Zhaodong" (Little North). At 1911, Li Cunyi, together with Ye Yunbiao, Zhang Zhankui, Ma Fengtu and others, established the "Zhonghua wushi hui" ("Chinese Martial Arts Association") in Tianjin.

On September, 1918, he entered the "Tournament of Powermen from 10.000 countries" with Li Cuiyi, Han Muxia and Li Jianqiu. He easly defeated a Russian competitor, KangTaiEr.

Chang earned his reputation by demonstrating and fighting in matches against foreign opponents on a raised platform (Lei Tai). He is said to have once killed a horse by strangling it with one hand and is also credited with defeating several Japanese fighters and a German strongman. One of his more famous students was Chiang Jung Chiao.

Students
Chiang Jung Chiao, Han Muxia, Jiang Rongqiao, Li Jianqiu, Liu Huhai, Wang Juncheng, Wang Shu Jin (1904-1981), Zhang Daoxin, Zhang Yutin


Ma Gui (Ma Kuei, 1857 -1941) was from Shandong. He was also known as Ma Shr Ching (Shiqing) and earned the nicknamed "Short Ma" and "Wooden Ma" because of his physique and where he worked. He was also known for his strength. He was able to lift heavy rock by one hand and could execute very strong elbow strike. Thus, he also earned another nickname "Iron elbow". Other favourite techniques for Ma Gui is the wrist. In one story, he used his cutting wrist in the Langong Palace to break the arm of a martial arts teacher and he became the head of the palace's martial arts instructors. Ma Gui was also skilled at Crab Palm, Dian Xue (Pressure-Point Fighting) and practiced the Unicorn style of Bagua. He became famous in the capitol and people called him "Little Kunlun Ma Gui".

He originally worked as a servant before meeting Yin Fu when he was 18 years old. Through Yin Fu, he was introduced to Dong Haichuan. Dong also taught Ma the back the fist system. This falls outside the main structure of Bagua Zhang. When he was 23 (1880), he started a business as a lumber merchant. He set up a studio where Bagua practitioners could exchange skills. At that time Cheng Tinghua's and Liu Fengchun's men were in the capitol and would come to the Lumber shop to practice. Ma Gui was able to train with and learned with them.

After the Revolution of 1911, he worked as teacher in new military school. Since 1928 - consultant of Hebei guoshu institute. Ma Gui loved to fight and challenge and defeated many famous masters. He didn't like to teach and thus he had only a few students.

Students
Cao Zhong Sheng (wrote a book with a chapter on Ma's life in 1932), Fu Zhen Song, Wang Peishang, Xie Peiqi (1920 - )


Ma Wei Chi (1851 - 1886) owned a shop in Beijing selling coal and briquettes and he was therefore nicknamed "Mei Ma" or Coal Ma". As a young man he liked to fight. When Dong Haiquan became famous, Ma visited him in order to compare skills. Ma was easily defeated by Dong. Ma then threw himself down in front of Dong's school and begged to be taught. Among the students of the Bagua Zhang school, Ma was known as a person of outstanding talent. However, he had a fiery temper, was arrogant and liked to challenge people to test his skills. He had no respect for others except for his teacher and thus he was no liked within the martial arts circle.

Ma was an expert in Baguazhang, Baguadao, and Bagua Turning Spear. He was famous for his spear technique. Many stories exist describe the adventures of Ma. In one story, the coal-heap-walking caught the attention of an itinerant acrobatic entertainer called Hu San who wondered if Ma was in his right mind. When Ma told him he was practicing kung fu, Hu San laughed with scorn and decided to teach Ma the real meaning of kung fu. They decided to have a trial of strength. Hu tried to come to grips with Ma but couldn't even touch him. Ma simply walked in circles around his opponent, and Hu began to feel dizzy and gradually lost control. Before Hu knew what was happening, Ma had caught hold of Hu's hands and threw him to the ground some three meters away. Hu San got up, acknowledged defeat and expressed his admiration for Baguazhang. [2] According to another story, the Su Wang Palace advertised for martial arts teachers. Ma applied and was ordered him to demonstrate his martial skills. Ma picked up a Big Spear and moved into the prince's practice hall to begin. In the hall were many antiques and precious wall hangings. Ma took his spear in hand and performed flawlessly and did not break anything. Su Wang wanted to give him the appointment but he felt that if this man were to get angry and violent, he couldn't be controlled. He awarded Ma 1000 double silvers, and ordered him to return home. In another story, a famous caravan escort named Zhao Keli from the North East played tribute to Ma. During the meeting, Ma only heaped insults on Zhao. This angered Zhao and he challenged Ma. Ma used a heavy hand to wound Zhao but did not kill him. Those stories illustrates some of the character of the man.

Ma died when he was only 29 years old. One story suggest that he died from complications due to injuries inquired while he was training a jumping technique and hurt his back. In other story, Ma died because of injuries suffered after a competition. He went to Dong for healing, but the poison from the wounds had entered his bones. He couldn't be cured with accupuncture or herbs. Xie Peiqi consider Ma to be one of Dong's best students.

Students
He had only ten students among them are Liu Zipei, Yan Ju-Lin.


Liu Feng Chun (1855 - 1922) was also known as "Zhuozhou Liu" ("Liu from Zhuozhou") and "cuihua Liu" ("turquoise Liu"). He was born in Zhuozhou, Hebei province. When he was 9 years, he started to study mizongquan and luohan shiba shou. In 1872, he moved to Beijing and began to study baguazhang from Cheng Tinghua. He was later introduced and study with Dong Haichuan. He taught baguazhang at the Beijing Sport institute.

Students
Fu Huaqiu, Li Jianhua, Liu Wenhua, Tiao Chunxiu, Wang Zhongxian, Xu Yusheng, Zhou Yuxiang


Liu De Kuan (?-1911) was originally from Cangzhou, Hebei province. He was interested in the martial arts for most of his life and learned from many famous martial artists of the time. Liu Dekuan's original style was Yueh Style San Shou (also called Yueh Style Eagle Hand or Yueh Style Connected Fists). His teacher in this style was Liu Shijun, Xiong County, Hebei. De Kuan first studied with Shijun's student "Metal spear" Xu Liu and then later he studied with Shijun. Both Xu Liu and Shijun's excel in spear play anf they taught him "big spear of six co-ordinations". Using this big spear, he earned a reputation and the nickname "Daqiang Liu" ("Big spear Liu").

"All the elder teachers got along with Mister Liu Dekuan. In the course of time, all was made clear to him, and he ultimately was enriched. ... He toiled to get pointers from the older generations"
Guo Gumin student of Liang Zhenpo

Liu De Kuan travelled throught out China seeking out new challenges and studied from different masters. In Hubei province he studied six sets of fangtian huaji (drawed pole-axe of square heaven). From the famous bandit, Lu Lin, he studied "18 devil's methods of using hands" and using the secret weapon "half-moon dart". In Beijing, he meet and studied with Chang Ting Hua before being introduced to Dong Haichuan. In addition, his friends such as Li Cunyi and Zhang Zhaodong taught him the fundamentals of Xingyi. He also learn and practice Yang style taijiquan from Xia Guoxun, Yang Luchan's son-in-law .

"Guo Gumin followed Liu Dekuan around, thus searched to get secrets of the Bagua martial arts."
Li Ziming

Liu De Kuan provided many orginal contributions to the martial arts. De Kuan helped Cheng Tinghua to increase the popularity of the Bagua System. Liu De Kuan also contributed to the practice of Bagua. Cheng Style Bagua students train in "the Six Lines of the Halberd" - techniques that are directly attributed to Liu De Kuan. He also share the credit as one of the originator of Bagua Taijiquan - a style that is being practise in Jinan (capital of Shandong Province). [3]

There are many stories describing the skills of Liu DeKuan. In one story, Cheng Tinghua's eldest son,Cheng Haiting, was teaching the art in a field outside the Suiwen Gate on Ximo Street. Famous practitioners from both Yin Style and Cheng Style Bagua often came in their free time to sit and linger. Big Spear Liu, in his old age, suffered form an eye disease. Both of his eyes were not bright. However numerous students still wanted to compare skills with him. They only needed to bring the shaft of their weapon in contact with Liu's spear shaft to try to lift it up. Liu would stick to their spear shaft and advance. The opponent would lose his weapon and be thrown by his strike.


Song Chang Rong. First teacher of Gao Yi Sheng. His style of Bagua is extremely rare outside of Beijing.


   

Other Students

Dong Hai Chang (Tung Hai-Chuan) has many student that contributed to the popularity of the Bagua. The following are a list of his students that have information available in English. They are

    1. Cheng Dianhua (1848-1935)
    2. Fan Zhi Yong (1840 – 1922)
    3. Liang Yuzhen (1840-1921)
    4. Liang Zhen Pu (1863-1932)
    5. Liu Baozhen (1870-1944)
    6. Liu Fengchun (1853-1922)
    7. Li Cun Yi (1849 - 1921)
    8. Quan Kai Ting
    9. Shi Ji Dong (1835-1908)
    10. Wu Ying (1853-1912)
    11. Zhang Zhankui (1859-1940)

Cheng Dianhua (1848-1935) was the younger brother of Cheng Tinghua. His nickname was Laodian. He studied baguazhang from Dong Haichuan with his brother. Legend suggest that he was with his brother when Cheng Tinghua fought the German soldiers. He alone escape and after the brother's death he returned to home village in Hebei and began to teach baguazhang.

Students
Cheng Yousheng (his fourth son), Liu Ziyang

Fan Zhi YongFan Zhi Yong (1840 – 1922) was of Manchu nationality. He started martial arts practice since childhood and for eight years he studied Shaolin boxing and Tan Tui. Fan became a student of Deng and studied Baguazhang. Fan once spent 49 days in Prince Su Palace alone with Dong Haichuan where he learnt Buddhist and Taoist combined method called “Wu Ji Baguazhang”, also called “Nei Quan Baguazhang” (Inner Circle Baguazhang). His commitment to the martial arts earned him the nickname "Fan the Madman". [4]

There are many stories that describe his powerful techniques as well as his proficiency in free fighting and chin-na. Fan Fenglan recalls one of her father's adventures. In 1898, when Fan Fenglan was only fourteen, their family was invited by Liu Baozhen to moved to Gu’an County in Hebei Province. At that time in Xi Hong Buddhist Temple he killed challenged and killed a famous local gang leader - a bandit called “Hei Luozi” (Black Mule). They stayed in Hebei for three years.

Students
Fan Fenglan (daughter, 1884 – 1967), Ao Qinghua, Li Ziyan, Ning Hongliang, Shi Qingsheng, Tao Yongfu, Wang Zhi, Za Lifen.

Liang Yuzhen (1840-1921), nickname Zhaiwen, was a general in the Qing empire. He was born in military family, studied martial methods from his father. Later he trained with Dong Haichuan.

Students
Su Fengchun, Liu Zhenlin.

Liang Zhen Pu (1863-1932). Liang was Dong Haichuan's youngest student. He came from the Jixian county of Hebei province. He studied Tan Tui (a kicking style) from age 7 to 14. In 1877, his father sent him to sent him to study with Dong Haichuan. He studied with Dong for the next five years and also learned from Cheng Ting Hua , Yin Fu, Shih Chi Tung, and Liu Feng Chun. After the revolution of 1911, Liang became a head of Guard Bureau and later on some of his teachings were published. Pu is the only student of Dong Haichuan to be buried next to his tomb.

His Bagua had little influence from other styles and is most circular in nature among the Bagua variants. Every one of his sets are taught in a circle, unlike versions from earlier students. [4]

Students : Li Ziming (1902-1993).

 

Liu Baozhen (1870-1944) originally studied Chuojiao Fanzi boxing (a martial art famous for kicking techniques) from Ma and Zhang, two teachers from Shunying. He was also one of Li Zhenqing's first students to study Yin Yang Bapanzhang. Later, he began his Baguazhang studies under Dong Haichuan. He was skilled in using dao broadsword, so people called him "Feidao Liu" (Liu - flying sabre).

According to the "Dictionary of Martial Arts Personages", Liu worked for the Gu'an County magistrate and was famous for catching many local bandits. One of them, known as "King of Bandits" became Liu's disciple. However, since Liu was afraid that the "King" was not loyal to him, he killed the "King" secretly. Later ashamed of this murder, Liu left the martial arts society to become buddhist monk.

Students : Guo Mengshen.

Liu Fengchun (1853-1922) was called "Zhuozhou Liu" ("Liu from Zhuozhou") and "cuihua Liu" ("turquoise Liu"). He was born in Zhuozhou, Hebei province. When he was 9 years, he started to study mizongquan and luohan shiba shou. At 1872 moved to Beijing, began to study baguazhang from Cheng Tinghua, later - from Dong Haichuan. He taught baguazhang in Beijing Sport institute.

Li Cun Yi (1849 - 1921) was born in 1847 in Hebei province, Shen county. He was from a poor family, becoming a cart driver as a young boy and later opening his own bodyguard service. Li was known as "Jeweler Li" and "Single Saber Li" for his expertise with the broadsword. He was already an Hsing Yi expert (student of Liu Qi Lan) before studying Bagua with Chen Ting Hua and Dong.

He fought in the Boxer Rebellion of 1900. Li was forced to flee Beijing after the defeat of the Boxers. He went to Taigu because there was a large bounty on his head. He stayed with the famous Xingyi teacher, Che Yi Zhai, who also let his student Li Fu Zhen to act as a bodyguard.

Quan Kai Ting was a Manchu soldier and was considered to be one of the first students of Dong. He was a good painter, he drew the only existed portrait of Dong Haichuan.

Shi Ji Dong (Shih Chi Tung, 1835-1908) was nicknamed Zhenbang. People called him "Shi Liu" (Shi the 6th). He was born in Jxian county of Hebei province. He was Yin Fu's cousin. During childhood he studied tantui and was skillful in continuous kicking. Yin Fu advised him to study from Dong Hai Ch'uan and became Dong's third student. At the end of his life Dong lived in his house and his wife became an adopted daughter of Dong.

Wu Ying (1853-1912) was nickname Zizhu. Moslem from Cangzhou, Hebei province, lived in Inner Mongolia. He studied from many masters, from old Sun in Shandong he studied taizuquan and using the long pole, from Chen Mou, he studied tantui and zhaquan, and from Dong Haichuan, he studied baguazhang.


   

Remaining Students

An Fen
Chen Ban, Chen Chunlin
Feng Guanglian, Fu Zhenhai
Gu Buyun, Gu Yushan, Guo Tonghai, Guo Yuting
He Liu, He Wu
Jiao Chunfang, Jiao Yulong,Ju Qingyuan
Kui Yu
Li Changsheng, Li Shounian, Li Wanyou, Li Yonggui, Liang Le, Liang Shizhen, Liu Dengke, Liu Dianjia, Liu Jinyin, Liu Yinzhang, Lu Chengde
Ma Cunzhi
Peng Liangui
Qin Yukuang, Qing Shan
Ruan Zhengu
Shen Changshou, Shi Ting, Shuang Fu, Si Gentiao, Si Yuangong, Song Longfu, Song Shirong (1849-1927), Song Ziyun, Sun Tianxing
Wang Deyi, Wang Hongbing, Wang Huaiqing, Wang Tingjie, Wang Xiaosheng, Wang Yuntai, Wang Zhi, Wei Jixiang (from Gansu Province), Wen Zhi, Wu Maoting
Xi Zhang, Xia Mingde, Xiao Mensheng, Xu Henian, Xu Zhaoxiang
Yang Junfeng
Zhang Huaishan, Zhang Jinkui, Zhang Jun, Zhang Yimin, Zhang Yingshan, Zhang Ze, Zhao Yunxiang, Zhong Xiangpin


   

References

[1]The Legend of Yin Fu and Cheng Ting Hwa, Frank Allen & Clarence Lu. [04/2002] - BACK

[2] Baguazhang History and Lineage - Ma Weiqi, Bagua Productions, 1999. [04/2002] - BACK

[3] Origins and Features of Bagua Taijiquan, J.Szymanski, 1999. [04/2002] - BACK

[4] Origins And Characteristics of Fan Family Baguazhang By Wen Dasheng, J.Szymanski, 1999. [04/2002] - BACK

[5] Baguazhang History and Lineage - Liang Zhen Pu, Bagua Productions, 1999. [04/2002] - BACK

     

 

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Last update: 03/29/2002